The Roman Pantheon: The Triumph of Concrete

Research by David Moore, P. E.

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This public water fountain in Rome takes its inspiration from book binding. The fount of knowledge, perhaps?

Resources and References on Roman Concrete

Table of Contents

1. Web Resources

2. Video, including an interview with David Moore, P. E. on the History Channel.

3. Annotated Bibliography of references from The Roman Pantheon: The Triumph of Concrete and other materials

4. Libraries which have a copy of The Roman Pantheon: The Triumph of Concrete

5. University researchers in ancient concrete

6. Chronicle of World History by Dr. Frank King

7. Gettysburg to Appomattox: The South's Critical Failures by David Moore

1. Web resources   [Top]

Secrets of Roman Concrete is the focus of the September 2002 special issue of CONSTRUCTOR Magazine published by the Association of General Contractors (AGC) and edited by Ben Herring. This issue includes articles on Roman concrete, Roman construction, the Pantheon and materials for educators. Includes interviews with David Moore (author of The Roman Pantheon: The Triumph of Concrete) and David Macaulay (author of many popular books on construction). Download a full PDF version of the Sept 2002 issue from their archives or you can obtain the individual articles here:

 - The Secrets of Roman Concrete by Ben Herring

 - The Pantheon: Crown Jewel of Roman Concrete by David Moore

 - A Strange Obsession, a Monumental Achievement - an interview with David Moore by Stephanie Miller

 - Meet the Miracle Man of Construction Education - an interview with David Macaulay by Stephanie Miller

 - Attention Educators! - using Roman construction methods to stimulate student interest by Stephanie Miller

 - University of Rochester Course on Roman Engineering (2003) by Stephanie Miller

RomanSites - probably the best resource on the web for historical Roman information. Developed and maintained through the hard work of Bill Thayer. Provides a bibliography of web sites that can be searched rapidly for Roman material, and includes much original material found no where else. If you are researching Roman history, archeology or engineering, then you must visit this site. Provides links and commentary on 100's of sites including 70 specific sites that deal with the Pantheon alone. Includes the full text of Vitruvius's Ten Books on Architecture (in English) and the full text of Pliny's Natural History (in Latin). - information, pictures and even 3-D walkthroughs of most major buildings in history, including the Pantheon. The free version of the 3-D software is awesome!

Sibelius Academy (Finland) - images and photos of the Pantheon and Rome by K. Koskimies. Nice set of images of the Pantheon. - web site by the Davidovits. Research focuses on ancient ceramics, mortars, cements, concretes, synthetic (man made) stone and building arts representative of ancient civilizations. This includes the controversial thesis that the blocks in the pyramids were made of a form of concrete! - explores "prehistoric and historic water projects worldwide...without taking ourselves too seriously." The site is focuses on the effect that water has had on the quality of life. The site was developed and is maintained by Roger Hanson of the U.S. Bureau of Reclamation (Provo, UT area office). Roger has degrees in both history and civil engineering. Site includes articles on Roman aqueducts, water projects, and historical figures, such as Sextus Julius Frontinus, a water commissioner who left us his written personal account of the water system of Rome. - university thesis by D. MacGilvray and W. Scheffler based on computer generated 3-D images of the Pantheon and surrounding structures.

The Pantheon - full on-line excerpt from the book The Ruins and Excavations of Ancient Rome by R. Lanciani.

Pictures of the Pantheon - slide show of the interior, by Leo C. Curran.

Plans of buildings - lists the standard architectural reference tools that contain plans of major buildings in the U.S. or the world. (University of Maryland)

Cities/Buildings database - collection of digitized images of buildings and cities drawn from across time and throughout the world, available to students, researchers and educators on the web by Meredith L. Clausen, University of Washington.

Topographic dictionary of ancient Rome: the Pantheon - excellent summary of the building and its history by S. Platner and T. Ashby. Part of the "Classics collection" at Tufts University.

Roman engineering by James Bevacqua - nice short article on Roman water supplies and aqueducts.

Art History course AH152K - digitized slide sequence developed in conjunction with UCSB undergraduate course AH 152K - Survey of Roman Architecture by Fikret Yegul.

2. Video Resources   [Top]

Concrete is literally the building block of civilizations. It has allowed societies to develop, flourish and expand. Learn how its relatively simple formula has changed the world and how bold, new concepts have opened the door to exciting possibilities of design, creation, form and function.  Includes an interview with David Moore, PE, author of The Roman Pantheon: The Triumph of Concrete.
Original broadcast: History Channel; Wednesday, May 31, 2001; length: 1 hour

In 55 B.C., Julius Caesar claimed that his army built a wooden bridge spanning the Rhine River in only ten days. Modern-day engineer Chris Wise, who had a major role in the construction of the Millennium Bridge across the River Thames, takes Caesar's challenge. He tries to construct his own wooden bridge across a river of similar width within the same time frame and using the same Techniques that the Romans had at their disposal. Can the moderns beat the Romans at their own game?
Original broadcast: Monday, May 15, 2001; length: 1 hour
Click on for details of History Channel programs

A NOVA show wherein researchers tried to recreate a Roman bath. Unfortunately, from what we've seen of the show, it appears that they failed to use pozzolan instead of sand in the plaster that was used to seal the walls of the bath, so they did not have a hydraulic cement, and all the water leaked out!
Original broadcast: PBS NOVA, Feb 22, 2000(?)

3. Annotated bibliography of references from The Roman Pantheon: The Triumph of Concrete   [Top]

In doing research on Roman concrete, I spent considerable time in various libraries in the US and abroad tracking down references which might hold the key to the Romanís success. Although I did not find the definitive answer I was looking for, hence the motivation for writing The Roman Pantheon: The Triumph of Concrete, I did find many works that dealt with various parts of the Roman concrete puzzle, the technical environment and culture in which this great achievement occurred. Below are all the references from the book, along with my commentary on their content and relevance to this issue. It is my hope that others can use these references as a starting point for further research in this area. There is no sense in everyone else having to spend the same number of hours in research as I did, although spending time in beautiful old libraries is a most enjoyable pastime that I recommend to everyone. You will meet some of the nicest people in the world there who seem always ready to help. We have not had the time to annotate every reference as yet, but more comments will be added in the future. (David Moore, P. E.)

Adam, J. P., La Construction Romaine. Grand Manuels Picard, Paris, 1984, p. 86-87.

Atlas of the World. National Geographic Society, Washington, D.C., 1990, p. 68.

Azaroff, L. V., Introduction to Solids. McGraw Hill Book Co., New York, 1960, p. 431.

Azbe, V. J., Theory and Practice of Lime Manufacture. Rock Products Publisher, 1946, p. 129.

Bailey, C., et al, The Legacy of Rome. Clareton Press, Oxford, 1968, p. 439.
This book mentions the early training of Roman architects as a part the social structure of Rome.

Bailey, K. C., Plinus Secundus-The Elder Pliny. Arnold Publisher, London, 1929, p. 145.

Balsdon, J. P. V. D., The Romans. Basic Books, Inc., New York, 1965, p. 183.

Banks, R. F., and M. L. Kennedy, The Technology of Cement and Concrete. John Wiley & Sons, New York, 1955, p. 16.

Barraclough, G., The Times Atlas of the World History. Times Books Ltd., London, 1983, p. 273.

Benton, W., and H. H. Benton, The New Encyclopedia Britannica, 15 ed., Vol. 8. Encyclopedia Britannica, Inc., Chicago, 1974, p. 613.

Blake, M. E., Ancient Roman Construction in Italy from the Prehistoric Period to Augustus. Carnegie Institute of Washington, Washington, D.C., #570, 1947, p. 322.

Blake, M. E., Construction in Italy from Tiberius through the Flavians. Carnegie Institute, Washington, D.C., 1959, p. 161.

Braidwood, R. J., and G. R. Willey, Courses Toward Urban Life. Adline Publishing, Chicago, 1962, p. 73.

Brownell, W. E., Structural Clay Products. Springer-Verlag Publisher, N.Y., 1976, n. 2.

Buchan, J., Augustus. Hodder and Stouchton, St. Paul's House, London, 1947, p. 255.

Bye, G. C., Portland Cement Composition Production and Properties. Pergamon Press, Oxford, 1983, p. 111.

Cajora, F., History of Mathematics. Macmillan Co., New York, 1958, p. 43.

Carcopino, J., Daily Life in Ancient Rome. Yale University Press, New Haven, N.J., 1969, p. 63.

Cardew, M., Pioneer Pottery. St. Martin's Press, New York, 1969, p. 38.

Charlesworth, M. D., The Roman Empire. Oxford University Press, Oxford, 1968, p. 27.

Chesters, J. M., Refractories: Production and Properties. The Iron and Steel Institute, London, 1973, p. 69.

Chevallier, R., Roman Roads. University of California Press, Berkeley, 1976, p. 83. ,

China, T., Building Industry. Pride of the Pacific. Honolulu, Hawaii, July 1991, p. 22.

Condit, C. W., American Building Art. Oxford University Press, New York, 1961, p. 39.
This book tells of the large steel trusses (Burr type) used to span 328 feet at the Lakehurst blimp hanger; they are similar to the design used in the wooden bridges the Romans used to cross the Danube River (shown in stone on Trajanís Column). This should raise the eyebrows of our modern structural engineers. This was a common type of truss also used by the Romans as a form for long concrete spans.

Conophogos, C. and H. Badeca, The Water Cisterns of Ore Washers in Laurion and Their Special Hydraulic Mortar. Athens University of Geology Publisher, 1975, p. 336.
This special report is not readily available in any of the large western libraries. I found it in a main library in downtown Athens. It tells of the special lime mortar coating used in ancient Greek cisterns. Data from this report could expand the historical knowledge of concrete.

Cowan, H. W., The Master Builders. John Wiley and Son, New York, 1977, p. 73.

Daumas, M., A History of Technology and Invention. Crown Publishers, New York, 1969, p. 246.

de Camp, L. S., The Ancient Engineers. Dorset Press, New York, 1990, p. 195.

Deer, W. A., et al, Rock-forming Minerals. Longmans, London, 1967, p. 213.

Doumas, C. A., Thera. Tames and Hudson, New York, 1983, p. 12.
Thera is a small island in the Aegean Sea near Crete. It sits on the on the edge of a volcano which buried an ancient city. The book shows pictures of the ancient buildings and pottery (circa 1500 BC). The book holds excellent material for scholars of ancient civilizations. For instance, Doumas points out in the book that "circular troughs which the locals used to water their animals were actually heavy prehistoric mortars made of local volcanic stone." This island is an archaeologistís dream to see if the ancients used volcanic ash in making concrete products similar to the Romans.

Dudley, D. R., The Romans: 850 B.C.-A.D. 337. Alfred A. Knopf, New York, 1970, p. 170.
Dudley provides a good background history on the Romans, providing data on the Legions.

Eckel, E. C., Cements, Limes, and Plasters. John Wiley & Sons, New York, 1922, p. 576.

Eglinton, M. S., Concrete and Its Chemical Behavior. Thomas Telford, London, 1987, p. 6.

Eichholz, D. E., Pliny: Natural History. Harvard University Press, Cambridge, Mass., 1962, p. 147.
Eichholzís "Pliny" is a "must read" for archaeologists and historians. He defines Roman building practices and adds support to the Roman practices given in Morganís book "Vitruvius-The Ten Books On Architecture." He cites Roman concrete making details (a little hard to read at times to get the technical meaning); some say he copied Vitruvius, but I truly reserve judgment. See also Thayer's RomanSites for an on-line full text version in Latin.

Encyclopaedia Britannica, Vol. IV. The Warner Co., Chicago, 1895, p. 459.

Fink, R. O., Roman Military Records on Papyrus. American Philogical Association, William Clowes and Sons, London, 1971, p. 196.

Finley, M. I., The Ancient Economy. University of California Press, Berkeley, 1974, p. 176.

Fitchen, J., Building Construction Before Mechanization. MIT Press, London, 1988, p. 143.

Fletcher, B. A History of Architecture. Architectural Press, 1996, p. 177. 20th edition edited by Dan Cruickshank.
There are some 1600 pages of architectural details in this book. There were twenty editions that commenced in 1896 so books are not hard to find. Many of the sections of Roman buildings have dimensions and are to scale. Fletcher has given clear graphical representations to the Roman structures that are a great benefit to the students of architectural history. For example, he shows sections along with call-outs for building materials, such as concrete, in the Coliseum and Pantheon. He also talks about concrete form work. Note that the original text was dated 1896 so recent discoveries like cracks in the Pantheon dome are not included; however it is still a good research tool.

Forbes, R. J., Antiquity. E. J. Brill Publisher, Leiden, 1950, p. 132.

Forbes, R. J., Man the Maker. Abelard Schuman Ltd., London, 1958, p. 72.

Fowler, W. W., Social Life at Rome. Macmillan Co., London, 1965, p. 31.

Frank, S., Glass and Archaeology. Academic Press, London, 1982, p. 2.

Gest, A. P., Engineering. Copper Square Publisher, Inc., New York, 1963, p. 40.
This book provides a historical view of engineering. The text mentions form marks on the faces of the concrete foundation of the Flavian Palace in Rome around [???? BC]. This is important evidence of early concrete construction methods. Other early construction methods of the ancients are discussed.

Ghosh,S. N., and A. K. Chatterjee, Advances in Cement Technology. Pergamon Press, N.Y., 1983, p. 538.

Gibbon, E., The Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire. Harcourt, Brace and Company, New York, 1960, p. 891.

Ginouves, R., and R. Martin, Dictionary of the Methods of Greek and Roman Architecture. University of Paris at Paris, Vol. 1, 1985, 130.

Glasgow, G., The Minoans. Kennikat Press, New York, 1923, p. 33.

Graham, T. W., The Palaces of Crete. Princeton University Press, Princeton, N.J., 1962, p. 6.

Grant, M., The Army of Caesars. Charles Scribner's Sons, New York, 1973, p. 33.

Grant, M., The World of Rome. The World Publishing Co., New York, 1960, p. 109.

Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3ed. Vol. 16. Macmillan Inc., New York, 1974, p. 170.

Green, D., Pottery Glazes. Watson-Guptill Publisher, New York, 1973, p. 25.
Green discusses temperatures used to bake pottery in his book. It turns out that the temperature for baking clay pots ( used in a broken state to make concrete in Rome) is in the same range as the temperature used to drive the gases out of limestone in making lime - so the same kiln can be used in both cases. Temperature activates the pozzolan characteristic of the clay as found by the US Bureau of Reclamation in another publication.

Hadas, M., Imperial Rome. Time-Life Books, Alexandria, Virginia, 1975, p. 82.

Hamer, F., The Potter's Dictionary of Materials and Techniques. Pitman Publishing, London, 1975, p. 268.

Hamey, L. A. and J. A. Hamey,The Roman Engineers. Cambridge University, Cambridge, 1981, p. 42.

Hamlin, T., Architecture Through the Ages. G. P. Putnam's Sons, New York, 1953, p. 161.

Heichelheim, F. M., and C. A. Yeo, A History of the Roman People. Prentice-Hall, Inc., Englewood Cliffs, N.J., 1962, p. 412.

Harris, Robert, Pompeii, a Novel. Random House, New York, NY, 2003. An excellent history-based murder mystery set in the last days of Pompeii. The hero is, believe it or not, a Roman water works engineer who is an expert in Roman concrete! Mr. Harris's extensive background research enabled him to include details on Roman construction methods and technology that make this work believable, exciting and educational.

Herschel, C., The Water Supply of the City of Rome of Sextus Frontius. Dana Estes and Company, Boston, 1899, p. 160.
For the historians this book tells of details of the water supply such as the aqueduct and their location for Rome. An excellent background on the features of Roman aqueducts, but it lacks a discussion of Roman concrete.

Hodges, H., Technology of the Ancient World. Alfred A. Knopf, New York, 1970, p. 184.

Hood, S., The Minoans. Praegier Publisher, N.Y., 1971, p. 71.

Hyams, E., Soil and Civilization. Thames & Hudson, London, 1952, p. 119.

Jenkin, C. F., An Inaugural Lecture of the Training of the Engineering Profession. University of Oxford Press, 1908, p. 12.
This lecture has little to do with Roman engineers except to note that the Oxford engineers have a training history similar to the Romans. Perhaps Oxford learned something from the Romans!

Johnston, H. W., The Private Life of the Romans. Cooper Square Publishers, Inc., New York, 1973, p. 172.

Jones, A. H. M., Augustus. W. W. Norton Co., New York, 1970, p. 10.
Emperor Augustus was a brother-in-law to Agrippa, the person in charge of building the first Pantheon. Agrippaís name appears over its door. The book gives a historical picture of their early education. Many Roman structures were built in this period which makes it important to review this background.

Jones, A. H. M., The Later Roman Empire: 284-602 AD, Vol. II. University of Oklahoma Press, Norman, OK, 1964, p. 1013.
[Work in progress]

Karpinski, L. C., The History of Arithmetic. Russell and Russell, New York, 1965, p. 24.

King, A., Archaeology of the Roman Empire. Bison Books Ltd., London, 1988, p. 10
King provides a very brief history of Rome with the make-up of the government and the legions. Details such as management positions and salaries are given along with pictures of buildings (e.g. apartments, villas, theaters and aqueducts) and Hadrianís wall. He touches briefly on technology, industry, and trade, but nothing on concrete or specifics of construction. The book is of interest to a general readership as a good background to Roman history.

King, Frank P., A Chronicle of World History. Rowman & Littlefield Pub Inc., 2002. Dr. King provides an succinct overview of mankind's development, including context for Roman political and economic power.

King, Gustaf Adolf, Estruscan Culture, Land and People. Columbia University Press, New York, 1962, p. 241.

Kingery, W. D., Ancient Technology to Modern Science, Vol. I. The American Ceramic Society Publisher, Columbus, Ohio, 1985, p. 20.

Kline, M., Mathematics in Western Culture. Oxford University Press, New York, 1953, p. 63.

Knibbs, N. V. S., The Chemistry, Manufacture and Use of the Oxides, Hydroxides, and Carbonates of Calcium and Magnesium. Earnest Benn Ltd. Publisher, London, 1924, p. 14.

Komendant, A. E., Contemporary Concrete Structures. McGraw-Hill Book Co., New York, 1972, p. 352.
Komendantís book covers concrete structures but is also foremost in the field of concrete chemistry. It defines the role of water and other ingredients in concrete...a must for construction engineering. It tells the importance of a low water-cement (or lime-pozzolan) ratio in making strong concrete, a technique which the Romans mastered some 2000 years ago.

Krieger, M., Homeowners' Encyclopedia of House Construction. McGraw-Hill Co., New York, 1978, p. 172.

Lanciani, R., The Ruins and Excavations of Ancient Rome. Benjamin Bloom Publisher, New York, 1967, p. 561.

Lea, F. M., The Chemistry of Cement and Concrete. St. Martin Press, New York, 1956, p. 367.

Levi, D., The Italian Excavations in Crete and the Earliest European Civilization. Italian Institute of Culture Publisher, Dublin, 1963, p. 6.
Levi made an interesting discovery in his excavations of the Palace of Phaistos on Crete, which is about 70 miles from the volcanic island of Theras that covered parts of Crete with volcanic ash (a pozzolan material used in concrete). He recorded that during his excavations, he broke literally hundreds of picks removing the upper levels of cover debris to get at the older ruins of the palace he was interested in. The cover debris was probably from a newer palace that was built over the older one. I claim that this manmade material might possibly be the first real instance of ancient concrete. This should certainly be studied in more detail. I quote the author in my book because I do not believe engineers are aware of the potential importance of this find.

Licht, Kjeld De Fine, The Rotunda in Rome: A Study of Hadrian's Pantheon. Jutland Archeological Society Publications VIII, Publisher, Copenhagen, 1968, p. 92.
This is the ultimate book on the Pantheon. It is hard to find except in very good libraries. It is a detailed architectural and archeological study of the building, with many important engineering observations. Includes many beautiful old drawings and photos of the Pantheon throughout the ages. The best single book on the building that I have seen.

Lugli, G., The Pantheon and Adjacent Structures. Giovanni Bardi Publiisher, Rome, 1971, p. 20.

Macaulay, D. City-A Story of Roman Planning and Construction. Houghton Miffin Company, Boston, 1974, p. 28.
This book gives sketches of unusual Roman construction practices. He shows pile driving, pier placement, cofferdam construction, truss and roadway construction, roofs; I have found his sketches quite true in every detail and recommend the book for the engineers, archaeologists, and historians. He discusses brick and tile work, but not concrete.

MacDonald, W. L., The Architecture of the Roman Empire. Yale University Press, London, 1965, p. 158.

MacDonald, W. L., The Pantheon: Design, Meaning and Progeny. Harvard University Press, Cambridge, Mass., 1976, p. 37.
This is an excellent overview of the architectural features of the Pantheon, with site plans, building plans and sections. Includes discussion of other buildings, both ancient and modern, which were influenced by the Pantheon's architecture. Does not discuss engineering or construction issues in much depth.

MacMullen, R., Soldier and Civilian in the Later Roman Empire. Harvard University Press, Cambridge, Mass., 1967, p. 173.

Malinowski, R., Concrete and Mortars in Ancient Aqueducts. Concrete International: Design and Construction. Detroit, Michigan, Jan. 1979, p. 75.

Maloney, J., and B. Hobley, Roman Urban Defences in the West, Report 51. Council for British Archaeology Pub., 1983, p. 26.

Mark, R., and P. Hutchinson, On the Structure of the Pantheon, Art Bulletin. March 1986, p. 29.
This is an excellent engineering study of the structural behavior of the dome. They performed a finite element analysis of building, including the external step rings and the longitudinal cracks in the dome. One of the surprising results is that the Romans might have viewed the "dome" structurally as a set of arches, and designed it accordingly! This is a "must have" article if you are interested in the structure of the Pantheon.

Mason, B., Principles of Geochemistry. John Wiley and Sons, New York, 1966, p. 160.
This book provides a technical discussion of research into geology to explain rock composition. For instance, it explains how a pozzolan material can be created by ground water seeping through silica. Pozzolan material was a key component of ancient concrete.

Mason, O. T., The Origins of Invention. The MIT Press, Cambridge, Mass., 1966, p. 111.

Mercer, H. C., Ancient Carpenters Tools. The Bucks County Historical Society, Doylestown, Penn., 1960, preface.

Middleton, J. H., The Remains of Ancient Rome. Adam and Charles Black Publishers, London, 1892, p. 47.

Mielenz, R. C., Concrete as a Modern Material, Modern Materials. Academic Press, New York, 1965, p. 276.

Mielenz, R. C., et al, Effect of Calcination on Natural Pozzolan, Symposium on Use of Pozzolanic Materials in Mortars and Concrete, Publication #99. American Society of Testing Materials, " Philadelphia, PA", 1950, P. 52.

Mix Design Investigation, Roller Compacted Concrete, Upper Stillwater Dam, REC-ERC-84-15. Bureau of Reclamation, Denver, 1984, p. 9.

Morgan, M. H., Vitruvius - The Ten Books on Architecture. Dover Publications, New York, 1960, p. 248. See also Bill Thayer's on-line version.

Nash, E., Pictorial Dictionary of Ancient Rome, Vol. I. Frederick A. Praeger, New York, 1968, p. 38 and 46.

Neuburger, A., The Technical Arts and Science of the Ancients. Macmillan Co. New York, 1930, p. 408.
Neuburger was an astute researcher who was able to acquire many facts about Roman construction. For example, he shows the Roman tools dug out of the ashes of Pompeii; the metal tools resemble the modern types so we can see the Roman technology first-hand. One picture shows the method of applying plaster. There are comments on ancient concrete including the method of using concrete under water.

New Encyclopedia Britannica, Vol. 18. Chicago, 1991, p. 12.

New York Times, New York, Oct. 11, 1961, p. 49.

Norsker, H., The Self-Reliant Potter: Refactors and Kilns. Friedr Vieweg and Son Publisher, Braunschweig, 1987, p. 119.

Orchard, D. F., Concrete Technology. Applied Science Publishers, London, 1973, p. 112.
Orchard is a fine scientist who experimented with concrete materials which are recorded in his book. He found the unusual case where crystalline silica was cut so fine (ground up) that it had a reaction with calcium. This is counter to the theory that only pozzolan materials react with calcium in making ancient concrete.

Orlandos, A. K., Les Materiaux de Construction. Editions E. de Boccard, Paris, 1966, p. 139.
Orlandos provides many details on Roman construction such as the mixing of mortar used in making concrete. For example, his pictures show the shovels and hoes as they were depicted in cut stone of that period.

Patton, W. M., A Treatise on Civil Engineering. John Wiley and Son, N.Y., 1905, p. 175.

Peckworth, H. F., Concrete Pipe Handbook. American Concrete Pipe Assoc., Chicago, 1959, p. 12.

Petrie, W. M. F., Tools and Weapons. British School of Archaeology in Egypt, Hazell, Watson, and Viney, London, 1917, p. 43.

Popovics, S., Concrete-Making Materials. McGraw-Hill Book Co., New York, 1979, p. 77.

Potter, T. W., Roman Italy. University of California Press, Berkeley, California, 1990, p. 141.

Pye, L. D., et al., Introduction to Glass Science. Plenum Press, New York, 1972, p. 3.

Ramachandran, V. S., Applications of Differential Thermal Analysis in Cement Chemistry. Chemical Publishing Co., New York, 1969, p. 214.

Rehaut, E. B., Cato the Censor on Farming. Octagon Books, Inc., New York, 1966, p. 64.
Cato was the first Roman to write about making lime and early Roman construction methods about 200 years before Christ. This book is important to define the practice of making lime under quality control measures. Quality lime was important as it was an ingredient of Roman concrete, and without consistent quality lime the structures of Rome would not survive. He also talks about farming practices and other social endeavors. The book is required reading for historians and those wanting a technical background on Early Rome (not easy to understand, but important).

Rhodes, D., Clay and Glazes for the Potter. Chilton Book Co., Radner, PA, 1974, p. 12.
In his book Rhodes provides a scholarly discussion on the practice of baking pottery. Broken pottery was used to make Roman concrete according to ancient writers.

Rice, P. M., Pots and Potters, Monograph XXIV. University of California, Los Angeles, 1987, p. 8.

Robertson, D. S., Greek and Roman Architecture. University Press, Cambridge, 1971, p. 232.
This book discusses the method of concrete placement in forms, giving information on concrete compaction. He explains how the concrete was created by placing layers of volcanic dust (pozzolan) and lime in forms.

Rowden, E., Firing of Brick. Thomas Forman And Son, Nottingham, England, 1973, p. 2.

Ryan, W., Properties of Ceramic Raw Materials. Pergamon Press, London, p. 79.

Sandy, J. E., A Companion to Latin Studies. Hafner Publishing Co., New York, 1968, p. 317.

Scott, R. F., and J. J. Schoustra, Soil Mechanics and Engineering. McGraw-Hill Book Co., New York, p. 283.

Sear, Frank, Roman Architecture, Cornell University Press, Ithaca, NY, 1989.
This excellent book has many good details, and pictures on Roman construction methods and practices. Chapt 4 discusses Roman concrete in detail, althought the description of how lime-mortar works on p73 is not quite right. Chapt 8 gives good background information on the Emperor Hadrian and his role on the Pantheon.

Singer, C., et al, A History of Technology, Vol. III. At The Clarendon Press, Oxford, 1967, p. 448.
This is an excellent book that includes ancient Roman technology, written by many scholars. It provides the specifics which are missing in other works, such as: there were 40,000 wagon loads of tufa stone blocks used to build the Claudius aqueduct, details on their placement, and where each of the eleven major aqueducts were located. This thick volume is filled with other technical information on the ancients. This book mentions concrete and the use of concrete forms by the Romans.

Smith, D. E., Mathematics. Cooper Square Publishers, New York, 1963, p. 24.
This book sketches our mathematical history, briefly touching on Roman teaching of the subject.

Spier, R. F. G., From the Hand of Man. Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston, 1970, p. 35.

Strong, D., and D. Brown, Roman Crafts. Gerald Duckworth Co. Publisher, London, 1976, p. 212.
This book provides sources of lime taken from natural limestone near the Naples area which is effective in tying the lime contribution to the first concrete.

Swan, V. G., The Pottery Kilns of Roman Britain. Her Majesty's Stationery Office Publisher, London, 1984, p. 30.

Symposium on Use of Pozzolanic Materials in Mortars and Concrete. Publication #99, ASTM, American Society of Testing Materials, Philadelphia, 1950, p. 51.

Taylor, A., Metallography. John Wiley & Sons, 1949, New York, p. 302.
[Work in Progress]

Taylor, H. F. W., The Chemistry of Cements. Academic Press, London, 1964, p. 70.

Taylor, W. H., Concrete Technology and Practice. Angus and Robertson Publisher, 1965, p. 256.

Thayer, Bill, Vitruvius - Ten Books on Architecture this is the full on-line text of Vitruvius's famous book retyped by Bill Thayer. Provides some of the best information on Roman construction methods that we have. See Morgan for the printed version.

Van Deman, E. B., The Building of the Roman Aqueducts. Carnegie Institution of Washington, Washington, DC, 1934, p. 10 and 204.
The Carnegie Institution and Van Deman gave the world a book that is a scholarly piece. She details the construction of the aqueducts after many years of study in Rome. Such information as the type of bricks and specifics on Roman concrete in the various aqueducts are carefully presented; it was her life study. This valuable work describes a firm black pozzolan and lime mortar dating back to the late third century BC which is the first discovery of ancient concrete materials.

Van Vlack, L. H., Elements of Materials Science. Addison-Wesley Publishing Co., Reading, Mass., 1967, p. 386.

Von Hagan, V. W., The Roads That Lead to Rome. The World Publishing Co., New York, 1967, p. 35.

Waddell, J. J., Construction Materials Ready Reference Manual. McGrawHill Book Co., New York, 1985, p. 87.

Walker, D. S., Geography of Italy. Butler and Tanner, London, 1967, p. 173.
Walker provides maps of the volcanic topography around Rome and Naples. The volcanoes provided the pozzolan from their ash to make Roman concrete. Good location maps for future research on pozzolan materials.

Ward-Perkins, J. B., Roman Imperial Architecture. Penquin Books, New York, 1983, p. 472.

Webster's Ninth New Collegiate Dictionary. Merriam-Webster Inc., Springfield, Massachusetts, 1988, p. 27

White, K. D., Greek and Roman Technology. Cornell University Press, Ithaca, New York, 1984, p. 205.

Wilby, C. B., Concrete for Structural Engineers. Newnes Butterworths, London, 1977, p. 142.
Wibly points to the significance of aggregate ratio, compaction, the water-to-cement ratio, and the method of curing in making strong concrete. He gives an excellent discussion on how voids adversely affect the strength of concrete. The Romans compacted their concrete, thereby minimizing the voids to give Roman concrete greater strength.

Williams, T. I., The History of Invention. Facts on File Publications, New York, 1981, p. 60.

Winklemaw, B., Editor, The Times Atlas of World History. Hammond Pub., Maplewood, NJ, 1979, p. 91.
We are fortunate to have this atlas as it provides details on trade in ancient Rome. In one case it lists lime as a product shipped from Pozzuoli to Rome indicating its importance as a commodity needed in construction in Rome. Lime is an important component in making ancient as well as modern concrete.

Woodforde, J., Bricks to Build a House. Routledge and Kegan Paul Publisher, London, 1976, p. 21, 26

Worrall, W. E., Clays and Ceramic Raw Materials. Pergamon Press, London, 1986, p. 82.

Worrall, W. E., Clays. Butler and Tanner Publisher, N.Y., 1968, p. 80.

Zumberge, J. H., Elements of Geology. John Wiley & Sons, New York, 1963, p. 32.

4. Libraries with a copy of The Roman Pantheon: The Triumph of Concrete   [Top]

The British Museum
Dept. Of Greek and Roman Antiquities
London WCI B 60G
United Kingdom
Phone 0171 636 1555

Bodelian Library
University of Oxford
Broad Street
Oxford OXI 3BG
United Kingdom
Phone Oxford (01865) 277000

Ashmolean Library
University of Oxford

Kent Institute of Art and Design
Canterbury Library
New Dover Road, Canterbury
Kent CTI 3AN
United Kingdom
Phone 01227 769371

Universitŗ di Roma - "La Sapienza"
University of Rome
A copy in the Engineering faculty library and another in the Architecture faculty library
Rome, Italy

University of Guam, Library
UOG Station, Mangilao, Guam 96923

5. Universities performing research in ancient concrete and construction   [Top]

University of Rochester, Rochester, NY, USA
Renato Perucchio, PhD; Assoc. Prof. of Mech. Eng.
Kathryn Argetsinger, PhD; Senior Lecturer in Classics, Dept. of Religion and Classic;
See the Constructor Magazine article above for details on the class taught in 2003.

6. The Comprehensive Chronicle of World History by Dr. Frank King   [Top]

The Comprehensive Chronicle of World History
Volumes I through IV, Frank King, Ph.D., 2008
This comprehensive view of world history provides an excellent context for mankind's experiences, arranged in chronological order. Of particular interest to the study of Roman concrete are the other world events that were taking place about the same time that the Romans were creating their magnificent structures with concrete (100 BCE to 300 CE). Click here to view more information and to download the four volume set in PDF format at no cost.

7. Gettysburg to Appomattox: The South's Critical Failures by David Moore   [Top]

Gettysburg to Appomattox: The South's Critical Failures
by David Moore, 2010
This approachable history book focuses on the major conflicts at Gettysburg and the final battles leading to surrender at Appomattox to explore the critical failures that contributed to the South losing the Civil War. Click HERE for more details and to download the book in PDF format at no cost.

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